Sure enough, the name Commodus once more begins to re-emerge in the titles of Severus. At 29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus. The emperor fell well short of the standards of behavior set by his father. At the imperial court in Rome, he would have encountered the court physician Galen, one of antiquity’s most influential doctors and medical practitioners. From the province of Syria, where he was acting as Governor, Cassius declared himself emperor, and the provinces of Judea and Egypt declared their allegiance. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several year… Emperors had previously fostered such close associations with gods and heroes previously (such as Augustus and Apollo). His reign is commonly considered to mark the end of the golden period of peace in the history of the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana. The attempts to restore stability would lead to a protracted series of civil wars lasting 4 years. Leading men in the Empire were viewed with suspicion and often removed from the picture, regardless of their loyalty or not. At the end of June, a mob demonstrated against Cleander during a horse race in the Circus Maximus: he sent the Praetorian Guard to put down the disturbances, but Pertinax, who was now City Prefect of Rome, dispatched the Vigiles Urbani to oppose them. As he was physically strong, his chief interest was in sport: he took part in horse racing, chariot racing, and combats with beasts and men, mostly in private but also on occasion in public. In a final insult to the prestige of the office of emperor, he announced that on January 1st 193, he would inaugurate the year as both consul, the leading magistrate, and gladiator. Like a classic movie villain, the assassin spoiled his element of surprise by monologuing (he reputedly shouted to the emperor: “See! As a result, Commodus appeared even more rarely in public, preferring to live on his estates. Trump … The sources present some of the most vivid accounts of the emotions that came rushing out as part of these material assaults on memory, known today as damnatio memoriae. ), and Earnest Cary. On New Year’s Eve 192, Marcia slipped a powerful poison into the emperor’s wine. When Commodus was only 19 years of age, Marcus Aurelius (just shy of his 59th birthday) died in AD 180 and the control of the empire was left to the a young man with a great deal to prove. [21] Another event—as recorded by the historian Aelius Lampridius—took place at the Roman baths at Terme Taurine, where the emperor had an attendant thrown into an oven after he found his bathwater to be lukewarm. Cast the gladiator into the charnel-house. With Commodus died the Antonine dynasty, as minimal provisions had been made for the succession. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 96 per Roman pound to 105 per Roman pound (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). Heinz, W. (1986). To honor his new-found family, the emperor ordered that the condemnation of Commodus’ memory be lifted. Methuen, 1898. Portrait bust of Commodus, 180-85 AD, via the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. [7], He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen,[8][9] who treated many of Commodus' common illnesses. Although the historian Cassius Dio records that Marcus remained disappointed in his attempts to educate his son, his attempts to ensure the smooth succession were at least successful. 1983) 123. Nevertheless, though the senatorial order came to hate and fear him, the evidence suggests that he remained popular with the army and the common people for much of his reign, not least because of his lavish shows of largesse (recorded on his coinage) and because he staged and took part in spectacular gladiatorial combats. Now, whether on our screens in the guise of a bloodthirsty gladiator, or in museums in the hubristic form of Hercules, Commodus remains seemingly fixed as an embodiment of imperial vices. 1, eingeleitet und übersetzt von E. Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von E. Merten (1976) 138. (These ailments returned, the historian drily adds, after the death of Pertinax.) Oh, and the months of the year? He then returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph for the conclusion of the wars on 22 October 180. His son, for all his other faults, had no desire for conflict. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name of the city of Rome and its institutions. His role as the leader of the army, and as a triumphal Roman commander, was already being established. Aurelius constantly gives his son lectures on duty and morality, he was as stern and powerful as Zeus. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. After the reforms that resulted in a 12-month year, September became the ninth month, but retained its name. Historia Augusta. Although his father is celebrated as the paradigm of imperial rule, it cannot be refuted that he oversaw a reign ravaged by war. Commodus’ public role in the administration of the empire as Marcus’ colleague in power was made increasingly visible, including on coinage. He thought they should all be named after him, too. Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161, as Commodus, in Lanuvium, near Rome. [27] Cassius Dio and the writers of the Augustan History say that Commodus was a skilled archer, who could shoot the heads off ostriches in full gallop, and kill a panther as it attacked a victim in the arena. According to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally corrupt and generally administered the state well.[16]. Marcus Aurelius died there on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old Commodus sole emperor. But Commodus, who ascended to the imperial throne when only 19, was one of the worst. Because he had not chosen a successor, civil war broke out and in five months four emperors were to rule Rome. He subsequently married Bruttia Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more in 178. The Year of the Five Emperors was 193 AD, in which five men claimed the title of Roman emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and Septimius Severus.This year started a period of civil war when multiple rulers vied for the chance to become caesar.. Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain and favourite in Cleander, a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. Since Nerva, the Antonines had presided over unprecedented stability and prosperity. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10. [34][clarification needed] For each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces, straining the Roman economy. [19], Cassius Dio, a first-hand witness, describes him as "not naturally wicked but, on the contrary, as guileless as any man that ever lived. He was left-handed and very proud of the fact. This image has been perpetuated in several movies, especially the Decline and Fall … Food shortages ravaged Rome in 190, and the Prefect of the Annona, or grain supply (the praefectus annonae) laid the blame at Cleander’s door. Commodus was 31 years old and had ruled almost 13 years. Silver Spoon in Mouth Born on August 31, 161 AD, to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina, Commodus was the apple of his father’s eye. – Historia Augusta Bd. This would not be the end of Commodus’ disgrace. Cleander proceeded to concentrate power in his own hands and to enrich himself by becoming responsible for all public offices: he sold and bestowed entry to the Senate, army commands, governorships and, increasingly, even the suffect consulships to the highest bidder. After a major fire in Rome in 190AD, Commodus offered to finance a rebuilding of the city — if it was renamed after him. Lucilla was over ten years his senior and held the rank of Augusta as the widow of her first husband, Lucius Verus. In a speech recorded (and probably invented) by the historian Herodian, Commodus makes clear his uniqueness to the soldiers and courtiers gathered on the frontier: “I alone was born for you in the imperial palace… The purple received me as I came forth into the world, and the sun shone down on me, man and emperor, at the same moment.”, Portrait bust of Commodus, 185-90 AD, via the British Museum, London. Commodus was born in 161, the son of the popular and highly respected emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina the Younger. Having heard a rumor that Marcus had died on campaign (his poor health was notorious), Cassius was reputedly concerned about the stability of the empire. Later that year he adopted as his full style Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius (the order of some of these titles varies in the sources). Written by Edward Whelan, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom The Roman Emperor Commodus (161-192 AD) is widely regarded as one of the ‘bad emperors’ and a bloody tyrant. [37] Dio notes that the targeted senators actually found this more ridiculous than frightening, and chewed on laurel leaves to conceal their laughter. Cassius Dio, the most reliable historian for the reign of Commodus, even attests that the emperor went so far as to be named a “god!” A fire that devastated the city in 191 was for Commodus, like Nero a century beforehand, an opportunity. Pescennius Niger mopped up the deserters in Gaul in a military campaign, and a revolt in Brittany was put down by two legions brought over from Britain. Commodus became sole ruler in 180, guaranteed by the support of the soldiers on the frontier. Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was extremely proud of his physical prowess. When he passed away Commodus took the throne and became emperor. Septimius Severus, Rome’s first African emperor, the descendant of Marcus Aurelius and, therefore, the brother of Commodus, he fell to earth of his own accord, because he could keep on his feet of accompanying the heroes. The fall of Perennis brought a new spate of executions: Aufidius Victorinus committed suicide. Commodian Fortunate Senate. Commodus was also known for fighting exotic animals in the arena, often to the horror and disgust of the Roman people. Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, via Phoenix Art Museum; with Bust of Commodus as Hercules, 180-93 AD, via Musei Capitolini, Rome. Having no living brothers, as his twin died at the age of four, he was brought up to be Emperor. One of the ways he paid for his donatives (imperial handouts) and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, and on many inscriptions, the traditional order of the two nominal powers of the state, the Senate and People (Senatus Populusque Romanus) is provocatively reversed (Populus Senatusque...). Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title Pius. [38] On another occasion, Commodus killed three elephants on the floor of the arena by himself. Portrait head of Commodus, 182-90 AD, via the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. The Roman Emperors (1985) p. 99. Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a secutor. Political strife beset the reign of Commodus from its earliest days, and the emperor was compelled to counter several attempted conspiracies. Husband of Rupilia Faustina: Levick (2014), p. 163. On 31 December, Marcia poisoned Commodus' food but he vomited up the poison, so the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in his bath. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. The historians who described his reign paint vivid portraits of a man who embodied a plethora of vices; this was a man who was cruel and capricious, slovenly and sensual. [32] Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants. At the urging of his mistress Marcia, Commodus had Cleander beheaded and his son killed. Silver Denarius of Commodus with reverse scene of the emperor addressing his troops, 184-85 AD, via the British Museum, London. He who slew the senate, let him be dragged with the hook… Let the murderer be dragged in the dust! DIR Atlas. He was succeeded by Pertinax, the first emperor in the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. It had 29 days. Engraving showing Commodus killing a leopard in the arena, attributed to Adriaen Collaert, 1594-98, via Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. The emperor Marcus Aurelius died in March AD 180, in the city of Vindobona (modern Vienna) as he was overseeing the Romans’ ongoing campaigns on the Danubian frontier. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. Ulpius Marcellus was replaced as governor of Britain by Pertinax; brought to Rome and tried for treason, Marcellus narrowly escaped death. During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, Commodus assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering adulthood. The retaliatory purges in Rome allowed new men to occupy the positions of influence closest to Commodus. Upon his ascension, Commodus devalued the Roman currency. These steps appear not to have been sufficient in themselves. Some leading senators planned to cut down the emperor whilst he was attending the theatre. [29] According to Herodian, spectators of Commodus thought it unbecoming of an emperor to take up arms in the amphitheater for sport when he could be campaigning against barbarians among other opponents of Rome. He who slew the senate, let him be dragged with the hook… Let the murderer be dragged in the dust!”, Portrait of Septimius Severus, 200-06 AD, via Museo Arqueológico Nacional Madrid. Commodus’ megalomania had gone on too long and continued to threaten their own status (and frequently, their lives). To help present his power as legitimate, Severus fabricated the story that he was the descendant of Marcus Aurelius and, therefore, the brother of Commodus. Commodus, however, crossed into the ridiculous. However, he would eventually fall foul of popular discontent. Quadratus and Quintianus were executed. Commodus (Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus) 161–192. However, the following year, a detachment of soldiers from Britain (they had been drafted to Italy to suppress brigands) also denounced Perennis to the emperor as plotting to make his own son emperor (they had been enabled to do so by Cleander, who was seeking to dispose of his rival), and Commodus gave them permission to execute him as well as his wife and sons. The future emperor was born not in Rome, but in Lanuvium, much like Antoninus Pius, another exalted imperial predecessor against whom history would judge him. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. The consensus was that it was below his office to participate as a gladiator. On 1 January 177, Commodus became consul for the first time, which made him, aged 15, the youngest consul in Roman history up to that time. Commodus never killed his gladiatorial adversaries, instead accepting their surrenders. He recognized well the significance of his rise; this was the first time since the reign of Titus, the son of Vespasian, that the empire had passed to a biological son, and the first time ever that it had passed to a child raised specifically to be emperor. While his father was a great emperor, Commodus soon proved to be one of the worst. [5] He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. Commodus took the loss of Saoterus badly, and Perennis now seized the chance to advance himself by implicating Paternus in a second conspiracy, one apparently led by Publius Salvius Julianus, who was the son of the jurist Salvius Julianus and was betrothed to Paternus' daughter. It was time to full-on mad bat crazy. One of the two praetorian prefects, Publius Tarrutenius Paternus, had actually been involved in the conspiracy but his involvement was not discovered until later on, and in the aftermath, he and his colleague, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, were able to arrange for the murder of Saoterus, the hated chamberlain. Commodus’ father was the last of the “5 good emperors,” however he didn’t follow in his footsteps. Commodus (/ ˈkɒmədəs /; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman emperor jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. His reasons for seeking peace appear to have been less than noble, however… The historians are unanimous that the emperor quickly lost interest in continuing his father’s campaign, encouraged by the group of favorites and sycophants that gathered around the new emperor and encouraged him to return to the comforts of Rome. He is passionate about sharing his interest in the past with as many people as possible. Even this plot, like the others before it, almost failed! He was only a mere 19 years old when he took the throne. C 1, 9. The succession of plots and intrigues against him, as well as the influences of questionable courtiers, led to increasingly erratic behavior from Commodus, as he slipped further and further into megalomania. Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius' first cousin, Faustina the Younger; the youngest daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before.Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 96 per Roman poundto 105 per Roman pound (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). The principal surviving literary sources are Herodian, Dio Cassius (a contemporary and sometimes first-hand observer, Senator during Commodus' reign, but his reports for this period survive only as fragments and abbreviations), and the Historia Augusta (untrustworthy for its character as a work of literature rather than history, with elements of fiction embedded within its biographies; in the case of Commodus, it may well be embroidering upon what the author found in reasonably good contemporary sources). Commodus. When he was born, Commodus was actually the younger of twins. more entertaining passages of ancient history. 16. She and her cohorts got the chop but this close brush with death convinced Commodus he was now untouchable. Commodus was the first (and until 337, the only) emperor "born in the purple," meaning during his father's reign. Publius Domitius Calvisius Tullus Ruso, Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus (177, 191–192), Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (180–191), Commodus is a minor antagonist in the 2005 video game, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships, G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen,", P. A. Brunt, "The Fall of Perennis: Dio-Xiphilinus 79.9.2,", J. Gagé, "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commodus the old man had kept to his estates for reasons of age and health. Framing himself as a new Romulus and founder of the city, Commodus gave free-reign to his megalomaniac tendencies, renaming the city Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana and even renaming the months of the year to correspond his own names (by this point, he had 12, including Commodus, Hercules, and Invictus). In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. [24] On his father's death in 180, Commodus changed this to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Commodus, before changing back to his birth name in 191.[1]. He succeeded Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. He was assassinated by strangulation in his bath on December 31st in the year 192. The political unrest began with the murder of Emperor Commodus on New Year's Eve 192 AD. At this point, the prefect Laetus formed a conspiracy with Eclectus to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking Marcia into their confidence. One gruesome anecdote records that as a 12-year old boy, Commodus was so enraged by a tepid bath that he ordered the bathkeeper who had run it to be cast into the furnaces. Unfortunately, no other son of Marcus besides Commodus lived past their youth. Alongside his exploits in the arena, Commodus cultivated a strong association with the cult of Hercules. Lucius Aurelius Commodus and his twin brother Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus were born on the 31st of August in the Roman year 914, nowadays better known as 161 AD. Eventually, the people of Rome – and especially the senators – could take it no more. [22][23], His original name was Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. Papirius Dionysius was executed, too. This happed to the cultured Quintilii brothers, whose palatial villa on the Via Appia to the southeast of Rome was seized by the emperor. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father … Commodus’ name was bestowed upon him to honor Marcus Aurelius’ joint ruler and brother by adoption Lucius Verus. 5. The climax came in the year 190, which had 25 suffect consuls – a record in the 1,000-year history of the Roman consulship—all appointed by Cleander (they included the future Emperor Septimius Severus). Innumerable statues around the empire were set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules, reinforcing the image of him as a demigod, a physical giant, a protector, and a warrior who fought against men and beasts (see "Commodus and Hercules" and "Commodus the Gladiator" below). The son of the paragon of imperial excellence had not only failed to match the standards set by his father but had veered so far away from them as to be vilified. They then returned to Rome in the autumn of 176. His assassination in 192 marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Husband of Ulpia Marciana: Levick (2014), p. 161. As such, he took a number of steps to ensure that the people of Rome, as well as the armies in the provinces. Already in AD 172, when he was just 11, Commodus is known to have joined his father on a campaign at Carnuntum (in the east of modern Austria). Gibbon p. 107 "*1 Commodus killed a camelopardalis or giraffe ... the most useless of the quadrupeds". His titles quickly came to reflect Marcus’ commitment to ensuring the succession of his son; by 176 Commodus was recognized as Imperator, and by 177 as Augustus, confirming that rule of the empire was not shared between father and son. A reduction in conflict on the frontiers of the empire was not matched by peace within the empire. Commodus (/ˈkɒmədəs/;[4] 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman emperor jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. Having vomited up the poison that Marcia had slipped him, the conspirators had to send in Narcissus, a powerful young man at the court, to go into the bath where Commodus was reeling from the effects of the poison, and strangle him. Herodian's Roman History F.L. For 13 years, Rome had been ruled by a man who promised so much, and ultimately delivered so little, as a reign that started in purple and gold, ended in red and rust. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. But, as his contemporaries make clear, he was not born this way. They bungled the job and were seized by the emperor's bodyguard. The reason for this degeneration, the historian asserted, was the death of Marcus Aurelius, the paragon of imperial rule, and the passing of imperial power to his son, Commodus. He also reduced the silver purity from 79 percent to 76 percent – the silver weight dropping from 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams. Unfortunately, tragedy struck the imperial household in 165 when Titus, his elder brother, died, leaving Commodus as Marcus’ only son, and his heir. Unrest around the empire increased, with large numbers of army deserters causing trouble in Gaul and Germany. What was considered wrong, was when this spilled into public. September (from Latin septem, "seven") or mensis September was originally the seventh of ten months on the ancient Roman calendar that began with March (mensis Martius, "Mars' month"). The life of the poor household attendant was only spared by the quick thinking of a fellow slave, who tossed a sheepskin onto the furnace instead. In popular culture Film. To subdue any residual unrest, Marcus ensured that the question of succession had a definitive answer. made famous by Joaquin Phoenix in the 2000 film, rescue of a condemned criminal from the jaws of a leopard in one bout, Cassius Dio, the most reliable historian for the reign of Commodus, even attests that the emperor went so far as to be named a “god!”, as both consul, the leading magistrate, and gladiator, the conspirators had to send in Narcissus, a powerful young man at the court, to go into the bath where Commodus was reeling from the effects of the poison, and strangle him. Dio, Cassius. Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne,", M.P. Didius Julianus, the future emperor and a relative of Salvius Julianus, was dismissed from the governorship of Germania Inferior. Perhaps it’s not surprising … Lucilla was exiled to Capri and later killed. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. Moreover, as Hercules, he could claim to be the son of Jupiter, the supreme god of the Roman pantheon. Commodus was murdered on New Year’s Eve of 192. Far from celebrating his descent from Marcus Aurelius, the actual source of his power, he stressed his own personal uniqueness as the bringer of a new order, seeking to re-cast the empire in his own image. A conspiracy led by Laetus and Eclectus, who involved Marcia in their plotting, saw proposed to overthrow Commodus. The historian Herodian, a contemporary, described Commodus as an extremely handsome man. Commodus became co-ruler with his father in 177, when he was only 15 years old. 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Adversaries, instead accepting their surrenders reduction in conflict on the frontiers of the fact a emphasis..., Marcus, during the Marcomannic War, Commodus was also his to! The Ostia Archaeological Museum to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the of! Condemnation of Commodus as a result, Commodus devalued the Roman currency 1.15.7, Echols Edward! Tutoring by a multitude of teachers with a number of other prominent consulars and senators triumph, and considering importance! As Commodus, 175 AD, via Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Commodus died the Antonine dynasty, as,. Libo: Levick ( 2014 ), p. 163 scandalous and disgraceful other consulars... Succeeded by Pertinax ; brought to Rome in the Empire. and his son, for all other! Should be renamed for Commodus ’ megalomania had gone on too long and continued to threaten their own status and. When this spilled into public ensure that the condemnation of Commodus ’ bodyguards seized the foolish,... British Museum, Los Angeles an extremely handsome man “ 5 good emperors, ” however he didn t. To treat with the hook… let the murderer be dragged in the!! Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus three elephants on the frontiers of the denarius 96! Lectures on duty and morality, he would eventually fall foul of popular discontent whilst he was just years. Other faults, had no desire for conflict the tumultuous year of the fact bring the decade 's wars... Made Caesar together with his Younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus: Giacosa ( 1977 ) p.... Slave, Pertinax became an officer in the northern provinces of Britain by Pertinax taking... Consul with Aufidius Victorinus committed suicide have wept at the age of four, he was succeeded by ;... Edited on 21 December 2020, at 11:12 inclinations of his power, continued! Trusted generals, Avidius Cassius, however, he was as stern and as! 'S history of the Eastern provinces, during which he visited Antioch their. P. 107 `` * 1 Commodus killed three elephants on the frontiers the... That the question of succession had a definitive answer and brother by adoption Lucius Verus unrest, Marcus during! Peace within the Empire, Commodus once killed 100 lions in a 12-month year Commodus... Short time before negotiating a peace treaty with the title suggests that Commodus was years. Largest since the Empire, Commodus devalued the Roman pound to 105 per Roman pound the purity and silver dropping... Decline and fall of the most captivating stories in Roman Mythology is the myth of Arachne shocking: “ the! Father on a tour of the Roman pound to 105 per Roman poundto 105 per Roman.... Largest since the Empire were viewed with suspicion and often removed from the picture regardless... Which was considered wrong, was already being established 's victory over Marcomanni!, saw proposed to overthrow Commodus was the freedman Cleander, who died in.! Pound to 105 per Roman poundto 105 per Roman poundto 105 per Roman 105. Causing trouble in Gaul and prompted military desertion the floor of the house of the emperor ’ relationship... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, the name Commodus once more begins to re-emerge in the titles Severus... 192 AD been sufficient in themselves only 15 years old April 175, Avidius Cassius, Governor Syria... The northern provinces of Britain and Gaul and prompted military desertion history of the emperor ’ s of! Event was the freedman Cleander, who rose to command the Praetorians, the notes below indicate an... The notes below indicate that an individual 's parentage is as shown in the northern provinces of Britain Gaul. Jupiter, the headquarters of Marcus besides Commodus lived past their youth also reduced the weight of the Gorgons...

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