And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? Shylock is not a Jewish name. A Czech translation by Jitka Sloupova ran in Prague from 2016-2019 at Divadlo Na Jezerce and starred Milan Kňažko. Actor Jon Davies asserts that Shakespeare intended the character of Shylock to be played as a villain in The Merchant of Venice based on the attitudes towards Jews during the era he was writing. [1] It premiered at Bard on the Beach on August 5, 1996, where it was directed by John Juliani and starred popular Canadian radio host, David Berner. [5] At the same time, most Christian kings forbade Jews to own land for farming or to serve in the government, and craft guilds usually refused to admit Jews as artisans. This was followed by a touring production in 2016. Under Nazi rule in 1943, the Vienna Burgtheater presented a notoriously extreme production of The Merchant of Venice with Werner Krauss as an evil Shylock. When a bankrupt Antonio defaults on the loan, Shylock demands the pound of flesh. He plays the rich producer who has borrowed money from Boss aka Shylock played by Mammootty, and doesn't plan to return it, no matter what. For instance, in the 2004 film adaptation directed by Michael Radford and starring Al Pacino as Shylock, the film begins with text and a montage of how the Jewish community is abused by the Christian population of the city. Shylock is the most vivid and memorable character in The Merchant of Venice, and he is one of Shakespeare's greatest dramatic creations.On stage, it is Shylock who makes the play, and almost all of the great actors of the English and Continental stage have attempted the role. Wearing the yarmulke, or traditional Jewish skull cap, Olivier’s Shylock showed his contempt for the malicious Venetians. To an extent, we feel sorry for Shylock’s victimization based solely on his Jewishness. Shylock, played by Davd Suchet, was now an opulently dressed, cigar-smoking business man, confidently moving among the Christians, sure of his superiority. The Bovshover-Adler script, further shaped by David Mandelbaum who played Shylock, appeared in New York as recently as 2011. [23], This article is about the literary character. “Satirical ‘Shylock’ Opens Feb. 25 at PA’s Walnut”. He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him." The Jews were expected to pay their guards.[19]. Portia, played by Sinead Cusack, sat with a symbolic golden chain across her lap as she waited for her suitors to choose among the caskets. Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor. It premiered at Bard on the Beach on August 5, 1996, where it was directed by John Juliani and starred popular Canadian radio host, David Berner. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shylock_(play)&oldid=983660680, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 14:22. Shylock was a villain because his revenge on Antonio was out of proportion to the injuries Antonio had inflicted on him. Get in touch. The Bovshover-Adler script, further shaped by David Mandelbaum who played Shylock, appeared in New York as recently as 2011. If it is war now, it is both their doing but, when played with youthful zest, Shylock was having the better of it. "The Merchant of Venice" for Peter Marks'... Actor Arthur Bouchier as Shylock in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice at the Garrick Theatre, 1905. Some say that these attitudes provided the foundations of anti-semitism in the 20th century. Photo shows Shylock played by Sir Ralph Richardson and Portia played by Barbara Jefford in the Merchant of Venice during rehearsals today. Three Interpretations of Shylock From Shakespeare's The merchant of Venice by Richard Jones and Franklin T. Baker. [After Shylock, the ruthless Jewish usurer in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice who demands a pound of his debtor's flesh as compensation for default upon a loan.] The scene sets up with Solanio, played by Alan David, and Salerio, played by John Rhys-Davies, talking to each other about Antonio’s situation and then joke as they see Shylock, played by Warren Mitchell, calling him “the devil in the likeness of a Jew.” After this the two men seem to corner and harass Shylock and joke at his daughter’s disappearance. Shylock, right, played by Mark Nelson begins to cut a pound of flesh from Antonio, played by Derek Smith. Photo shows Shylock played by Sir Ralph Richardson and Portia played by Barbara Jefford in the Merchant of Venice during rehearsals today. In the end – due to the efforts of Antonio's well-wisher, Portia – Shylock is charged with attempted murder of a Christian, carrying a possible death penalty, and Antonio is freed without punishment. All the names of Jewish characters in the play derive from minor figures listed in genealogies in the Book of Genesis. Colored. However, stereotypes of Jews as money lenders remained from the Middle Ages. Charles Cameron played Shylock with Ernest N. Abbott as Antonio, Norman Clark as Bassanio, Olive Stettith as Portia, and Mrs. Gordon Ascher as Nerissa (Wearing, I: 62). The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. “A Controversial Character gets a Controversial Interpretation in ‘Shylock’”. With Al Pacino, Joseph Fiennes, Lynn Collins, Jeremy Irons. [6] Shylock also examines the integrity of theatre at present through the lens of oversimplified Shakespearean translations, questioning the future of stage productions under the weight of censorship.[7]. The third Shylock is played by a woman (Jenni Lea Jones, from the U.K.), who turns to break the unbearable, cacophony of mockery with a howl that slams the Ghetto into silence. With slight variations much of English literature up until the 20th century depicts the Jew as "a monied, cruel, lecherous, avaricious outsider tolerated only because of his golden hoard". [11], Kean and Irving presented a Shylock justified in wanting his revenge. locks To lend money at exorbitant interest rates. Its American debut was in 1998 at Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Theatre where it was directed by Deborah Block, starred William Leach and was “Barrymore … Shylock's 'trial' at the end of the play is a mockery of justice, with Portia acting as a judge when she has no real right to do so. Many recent productions of The Merchant of Venice have certainly depicted Shylock more sympathetically than he was probably played when the play was first staged, in the 1590s which gave London not only Christopher Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta (whose title character, Barabbas, is a cartoon villain too exaggerated to be taken with complete seriousness) but also the execution of the … If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? Irving played Shylock and Ellen Terry played Portia. Portia, played by Sinead Cusack, sat with a symbolic golden chain across her lap as she waited for her suitors to choose among the caskets. Wanderlust Theatre Co. “Shylock by Mark Leiren-Young, Featuring M. Brady McKellar”. If you poison us, do we not die? She operated a loansharking business. Henry Irving's portrayal of an aristocratic, proud Shylock (first seen at the Lyceum in 1879, with Portia played by Ellen Terry) has been called "the summit of his career". William Shakespeare . New York: D. Appleton and Company. The 1619 edition has a subtitle of "With the Extreme Cruelty of Shylock the Jew ..." The Nazis used Shylock for their propaganda. Guides. Playing Shylock as He Should Be Played. Three Interpretations of Shylock From Shakespeare's The merchant of Venice by Richard Jones and Franklin T. Baker. Shylock is then ordered to surrender half of his wealth and property to the state and the other half to Antonio. One of the last shots of the film also highlights that, as a convert, Shylock would have been cast out of the Jewish community in Venice, no longer allowed to live in the ghetto. [9], Since Kean's time, many other actors who have played the role have chosen a sympathetic approach to the character. This reading of the play would certainly fit with the antisemitic trends present in Elizabethan England. How to Play Shylock. The central role of the usurious Shylock is played by Michel Simon, who manages to convey both the menace and the pathos of the character without lapsing into a broad Jewish stereotype. The modern pronunciation has changed because the standard spelling with a "y" signifies to readers a long 'i' pronunciation. 7. Feb. 02, 1964 - ''Merchant of Venice'' to go on tour: The British Council are taking a version of Shakespeare's ''Merchant of Venice'' on a … Kopfinger, Stephen. You really shouldn't mess with the guys down on 57th, they're real shylocks and the interest rates will kill you. If you prick us, do we not bleed? The answer must be a perfectly simple one. Shylock gets caught in his own trap and now it appears that it would have been better for Shylock if he had accepted twice or thrice the money which was being offered earlier by Bassanio. At the time, the prefix shy- meant "of questionable character, disreputable, shady" (as in the modern shyster), while shy-cock was slang for "a wary or cowardly person." During early Elizabethan times Shylock would have been played by a … Right, he wasn’t a terribly observant Jew, but he did see himself as a Jew when he played Shylock. Shylock, played by Davd Suchet, was now an opulently dressed, cigar-smoking business man, confidently moving among the Christians, sure of his superiority. In June 1581 he was again petitioning the Privy Council, from the Fleet Prison, condemned at the suit of William Borough to pay for a ship bought for Frobisher's last voyage, though he claimed the debt was not his; he was also bound for a larger debt of the Cathay Company. They were usually characterised as evil, deceptive, and greedy. F. Murray Abraham played this character at the Royal Shakespeare Company in 2006. Directed by Michael Radford. Lefkowitz, David. Shylock is a monologue in one 80-minute act written by Canadian playwright Mark Leiren-Young. Why, revenge. Davies is portrayed both in and out of character, presenting and stripping down the layers between character and actor. It's a twist on "don't hate the player; hate the game." It has since been produced at theatres, Shakespeare Festivals and Fringes throughout Canada and the US (including the San Diego Repertory Theatre where it was staged opposite a controversial production of The Merchant of Venice), was translated for a production in Denmark and has been staged twice by the original actor, Berner, in Venice. [7], Jacob Adler and others report that the tradition of playing Shylock sympathetically began in the first half of the 19th century with Edmund Kean. Similarly, it is possible that Shakespeare meant Shylock's forced conversion to Christianity to be a "happy ending" for the character, as it 'redeems' Shylock both from his unbelief and his specific sin of wanting to kill Antonio. [10] Jacob Adler was the most notable of the early 20th century actors in this role, speaking in Yiddish in an otherwise English-language production. Shylock is drawn in bold strokes; he is meant to be a "villain" in terms of the romantic comedy, but because of the multi-dimensionality which Shakespeare gives him, we are meant to sympathize with him at times, loathe him at others. Hey! Shalah is the grandson of Shem and the father of Eber, biblical progenitor of Hebrew peoples. Feb. 02, 1964 - ''Merchant of Venice'' to go on tour: The British Council are taking a version of Shakespeare's ''Merchant of Venice'' on a … Featuring an oppressed but strong Shylock played by Patrick Stewart in 1978, and David Suchet in 1981 Find out more. Shylock has received overwhelmingly positive critical and popular response, the script having been staged across Canada and the United States. … SHYLOCK : I am not required ... And all this is the outcome of the role played by Portia. The situation appears so that, if Shylock becomes merciful he is deprived of the JUSTICE he deserves, revenge from Antonio. In the 16th and early 17th centuries, Jews were often presented on the Elizabethan stage in hideous caricature, with hooked noses and bright red wigs. But he would likely not have been fully accepted by the Christians, as they would remember his Jewish birth. Shakespeare does not question Shylock's intentions, but that the very people who berated Shylock for being dishonest have resorted to trickery in order to win. Basic Training for the Eastern Front. Feb. 02, 1964 - ''Merchant of Venice'' to go on tour: The British Council are taking a version of Shakespeare's ''Merchant of Venice'' on a … The Shylocks of sixteenth-century London included "goldsmiths, mercers, and, most visibly of all, scriveners",[2] according to prominent scholar Stephen Orgel, a Stanford professor who serves (with A. R. Braunmuller) as general editor of The Pelican Shakespeare series from Penguin. Yet Jewish actors and directors have been drawn to the play. [1] Other scholars emphasise that, although the name echoes some Hebrew names, "Shylock" was a common sixteenth-century English name that would have been familiar to Shakespeare's fellow Londoners, and the name is notable for its Saxon origin, meaning "white-haired". [9] In 1994, Shylock won Second Prize in Canada’s National One-Act Playwriting Competition. Michael Lok was governor of the Cathay Company (chartered 1577),[3] which financed Martin Frobisher's disastrous voyage of 1578; he carried back 1,350 tons of "gold ore" which turned out to be worthless iron pyrite. [14] In this retelling, Shylock and Antonio are friends and share a disdain for the crass antisemitism of the Christian community's laws.[15]. Hyam Maccoby argues that the play is based on medieval morality plays, exemplum, in which the Virgin Mary (here represented by Portia) argues for the forgiveness of human souls, as against the implacable accusations of the Devil (Shylock). Its clutter-free set creates an intimate, relatable setting, while its dialogue is praised for adeptly engaging the audience with wit and humor. 1893 Between June 3 and July 17 Henry Irving presented nine performances of The Merchant of Venice at the Lyceum Theatre (London). In addition to his baser traits, Shylock is proud and has deep One interpretation of the play's structure is that Shakespeare meant to contrast the mercy of the main Christian characters with the vengeful Shylock, who lacks the religious grace to comprehend mercy. Now the malice was no longer centred on one place (Shylock) but shared equally by the inhabitants of Venice. You may also like. With Al Pacino, Joseph Fiennes, Lynn Collins, Jeremy Irons. Come and pleasure with us!” Davies, a well-educated thespian, clarifies that Shylock was met with antagonism not because of outrage at his portrayal, but because of his recognized status as villain of the play. Adler's Shylock evolved over the years he played the role, first as a stock Shakespearean villain, then as a man whose better nature was overcome by a desire for revenge, and finally as a man who operated not from revenge but from pride. She was there at the behest of Launcelot, played by Stefan Adegbola, Shylock’s comically rebellious servant. Shakespeare's play reflected the antisemitic tradition. His conversion came later and it really was a kind of Road to Damascus thing. As one audience member remarked of this moment, Jenni’s lung-filled, mournful cry reached something deeper than pain, becoming a cure for the Ghetto, a soulful healing. New York: D. Appleton and Company. It's a twist on "don't hate the player; hate the game." If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility? In some of the biggest productions to date, Shylock has been played by Gentiles. How to Play Shylock. Shylock does not realise he is being played into a trap as he is blinded by spite, so by choosing the forfeit of the bond he is also choosing execution or to have all of his estate forfeit by the letter of the law he so craved. Jacob Adler and others report that the tradition of playing Shylock sympathetically began in the first half of the 19th century with Edmund Kean. Shylock is a monologue in one 80-minute act written by Canadian playwright Mark Leiren-Young. Shylock is a character in William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice (c. 1600). Actor | Star Wars. In 1970, Laurence Olivier played Shylock at the Old Vic theatre, under director Jonathan Miller. Shylock is a grasping but proud and somewhat tragic figure, and his role and Shakespeare’s intentions continue to be the source of much discussion. “’Shylock’ challenges views of censorship, timelessness of theater”. The play focuses on a Jewish actor named Jon Davies, who is featured as Shylock in a production of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. Artwork Showcase. The venture, therefore, entirely failed, and in January 1579 he had to petition the Privy Council for relief and assistance. A Venetian Jewish moneylender, Shylock is the play's principal antagonist. Favorite Game RimWorld 1,623. Shylock, right, played by Mark Nelson begins to cut a pound of flesh from Antonio, played by Derek Smith. Shylock, the Jewish moneylender in Shakespeare’s comedy The Merchant of Venice. Due to the uproar the play’s run gets cut short and a frustrated Davies is forced to confront his last audience. Lorraine 'Lady Shylock' Calluzzo was an associate in the Lupertazzi crime family of New York. In 16th century Venice, when a merchant must default on a large loan from an abused Jewish moneylender for a friend with romantic ambitions, the bitterly vengeful creditor demands a gruesome payment instead. Another interpretation of Shylock and a vision of how "must he be acted" appears at the conclusion of the autobiography of Alexander Granach, a noted Jewish stage and film actor in Weimar Germany (and later in Hollywood and on Broadway).[13]. Holahan, Jane. Photo shows Shylock played by Sir Ralph Richardson and Portia played by Barbara Jefford in the Merchant of Venice during rehearsals today. Shylock was a character in one of Shakespear's plays (The Merchant of Venice). With a Shylock played by a woman, it might be tempting to play off one woman dressed as a man with another - the other being Portia, who disguises herself as a man. Its American debut was in 1998 at Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Theatre where it was directed by Deborah Block, starred William Leach and was “Barrymore Recommended.” It has since been produced at theatres, Shakespeare Festivals and Fringes throughout Canada and the US (including the San Diego Repertory Theatre where it was staged opposite a controversial production of The Merchant of Venice), was translated for a production in Denmark and has been staged twice by the original actor, Berner, in Venice. English Jews had been expelled in 1290; Jews were not allowed to settle in the country until the rule of Oliver Cromwell. Shylock is then charged for seeking to kill Antonio, and at the latter’s request, is required to both surrender his property and become a Christian to save his own life. Jew guy! Don't hate the actor that plays Shylock, hate (or, hey, maybe love) the way that actor is told to play Shylock.. Shylock is a Jewish moneylender, father to Jessica, enemy to Antonio, and one of the most complex characters of The Merchant of Venice—and arguably of all of Shakespeare's works. If they did not comply with this rule, they could face the death penalty. "The Merchant of Venice" for Peter Marks'... Actor Arthur Bouchier as Shylock in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice at the Garrick Theatre, 1905. If you tickle us, do we not laugh? [16] Jon addresses his audience at a "talk back" session, after the play is closed abruptly due to controversy over the play's alleged antisemitism. Nov. 05, 1972 - They are performing Shakespeare's play ''Merchant of Venice'' at the Montansier Theater in Versailles. Primera aparición. When he described the proposed bond as “a merry sport” he looked festive indeed. Shakespeare's manipulation of our emotions regarding Shylock is a testament to his genius as a creator of character. Followers. Previously she made weekly payments to Carmine Lupertazzi, but after his death via stroke, Johnny Sack took over as head of the family after struggling with Carmine Jr. Shakespeare gives Shylock one of his most eloquent speeches: Hath not a Jew eyes? Questions of historical revisionism, cultural manipulation, and political correctness lead to accusations of racism and of Jon as a “self-hating Jew”, forcing him to reassess his interpretation of the character as an actor, as well as his own persona. This means Shylock has been tricked into choosing a certain course of action and he did not know of the consequences until after his decision. Many famous actors have played Shylock over the years and the character has been approached in lots of different ways, sometimes as a merciless villain, sometimes as a tragic character. It is possible that Shakespeare originally intended the name to be pronounced with a short "i", as rather than a long one. "The Merchant of Venice" for Peter Marks' review. Directed by Pierre Billon. He was a Jewish usurer, so saying that a person is a Shylock means he's a loan shark. Sc.I, Lines 430-444) Paraphrase : BASSANIO : There’s more that depends on this ring than its value. The Vancouver Courier calls the work “Dangerous, daring and provocative”. Shylock the Victim . Arnold Wesker's play The Merchant (1976) is a reimagining of Shakespeare's story. Unsurprisingly, one of the biggest themes of the play is anti-Semitism. For other uses, see, "Pound of flesh" redirects here. Woodend, Dorothy. It depends on his portrayal as to how much an audience has sympathy for his position and character as to how much he is judged at the end of the play. However, Shylock is offered three times his money back and he still demands his pound of flesh; this moves him into the realms of villainy. Gordon Clark mentions another possibility. The Merchant of Venice (1973) Última aparición. In 2015 and 2016, David Serero plays Shylock in New York at the Center for Jewish History. Shylock in the 1600s: It is impossible to know exactly how Shylock was portrayed in Shakespeare’s time, and it depends on whom Shakespeare intended for the part. However, as an act of "mercy", Antonio modifies the verdict, asking Shylock to hand over only one-half of his wealth – to him (Antonio) for his own as well as Lorenzo's need – provided that he keeps two promises. Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor. [9] Since Kean's time, many other actors who have played the role have chosen a sympathetic approach to the character. His defiant nature supposedly stems from a desire to avenge the unfair treatment of his Jewish people by Christians. In addition, the phrase "pound of flesh" has also entered the lexicon as slang for a particularly onerous or unpleasant obligation. Davies argues that art and theatre should be provocative and challenging, regardless of potentially offensive or uncomfortable subjects. However, some scholars believe it probably derives from the biblical name Shalah, which is שלח (Šélaḥ) in Hebrew. Laurence Olivier at the Royal National Theatre in 1972 and on TV in 1973, Patrick Stewart in 1965 at the Theatre Royal, Bristol and 1978. In addition, Stewart developed a one-man show Shylock: Shakespeare's Alien and produced it while acting in the role in 1987 and 2001. Wearing the yarmulke, or traditional Jewish skull cap, Olivier’s Shylock showed his contempt for the malicious Venetians. Shylock is a Jew who lends money to his Christian rival Antonio, setting the security at a pound of Antonio's flesh. [22], The depiction of Jews in the literature of England and other English-speaking countries throughout the centuries was influenced by the Shylock character and similar stereotypes. English society in the Elizabethan era has been described as antisemitic.[18]. St. John Ervine's play The Lady of Belmont (1924) is a sequel to The Merchant of Venice where the characters meet again some years later. Shylock is one of Shakespeare’s most intriguing creations who has been identified as a character who can fluctuate to extremes. The Shakespeare Theatre Company presents William Shakespeare's, The Merchant of Venice in the Sidney Harman Hall. It is a pure Mammootty fan film and he is going to be the 'Mass ka Baap' always. And Shakespeare has been accused of being anti-Semitic as a result of his portrayal of Shylock in that way in The Merchant of Venice . Writer Douglas J. Keating of the Inquirer Theatre Critic commends Leiren-Young for making “it clear what he thinks about the issues surrounding The Merchant of Venice while presenting “the controversy about its performance and censorship fully and fairly”. Its American debut was in 1998 at Philadelphia's Walnut Street Theatre where it was directed by Deborah Block, starred William Leach and was "Barrymore Recommended". Hours played. View images from this item (2) Usage terms Courtesy of Jewish Museum London. Shylock was a villain because his revenge on Antonio was out of proportion to the injuries Antonio had inflicted on him. [4] His portrayal of the character as a villain causes drastic upset amongst audience members, a professor going so far as to spit at Davies. [2] The merchant’s ships sink, yet despite this loss, Shylock demands his money back. [8] Previously the role had been played "by a comedian as a repulsive clown or, alternatively, as a monster of unrelieved evil". [5] He comes out in full costume, make-up, and prosthetics, and strips off the character layer by layer as he speaks, until he stands before the audience to be judged as himself. 9. Previously the role had been played "by a comedian as a repulsive clown or, alternatively, as a monster of unrelieved evil". Davies is portrayed both in and out of character, presenting and stripping down the layers between character and actor. He was a Jewish usurer, so saying that a person is a Shylock means he's a loan shark. Granach, Alexander, "There Goes an Actor," tr. Engraving. John Barton 1978 and 1981 | The Merchant of Venice | Royal Shakespeare Company. Many modern readers and audiences have read the play as a plea for tolerance, with Shylock as a sympathetic character. 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