History, taxonomy, and phylogeny. The slow loris is a small furry forest baby with big anime eyes, teddy … The lifespan of these animals is said to be around twenty years in captivity. It seems probable that there are more species (in the sense of sharply diagnosable entities) than hitherto recognized among small Asian primates, and contrasting to some degree with larger-sized taxa. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. [143][121][142] According to data compiled from monthly surveys and interviews with local traders, nearly a thousand locally sourced slow lorises exchanged hands in the Medan bird market in North Sumatra during the late first decade of the 21st century. History, taxonomy, and phylogeny. within the Javan pet trade: implications for slow loris taxonomy. [47] This hypothesis was corroborated by a 2007 study that compared the variations in mitochondrial DNA sequences between N. bengalensis and N. coucang, and suggested that there has been gene flow between the two species. [113] The pygmy slow loris often returns to the same gum feeding sites and leaves conspicuous gouges on tree trunks when inducing the flow of exudates. Nekaris KAI, Jaffe S. 2007. They are most closely related to the slender lorises of South Asia, followed by the angwantibos, pottos and false pottos of Central and West Africa. Slow lorises (genus Nycticebus) are strepsirrhine primates and are related to other living lorisoids, such as slender lorises (Loris), pottos (Perodicticus), false pottos (Pseudopotto), angwantibos (Arctocebus), and galagos (family Galagidae), and to the lemurs of Madagascar. [110][112] A more detailed study of another Sunda slow loris population in 2002 and 2003 showed different dietary proportions, consisting of 43.3% gum, 31.7% nectar, 22.5% fruit, and just 2.5% arthropods and other animal prey. [91][92] Individuals sleep during the day, usually alone but occasionally with other slow lorises. [126], The two greatest threats to slow lorises are deforestation and the wildlife trade. The marks remaining after gouging can be used by field workers to assess loris presence in an area. These animals have thick and short fur in different shades, but reddish-brown or gray coat are most commonly found. Let us take a look at some interesting information about this animal, and its prospects as a pet. [66] Slow lorises have monochromatic vision, meaning they see in shades of only one color. [83][100][130] The three newest species are yet to be evaluated by the IUCN, although each were once thought to be subpopulations of the Bornean slow loris—which was evaluated as "Vulnerable" in 2008. Their eyes are large[22][65] and possess a reflective layer, called the tapetum lucidum, that improves low-light vision. Slow lorises have a round head, a narrow snout, large eyes, and a variety of distinctive coloration patterns that are species-dependent. [51], Breeding may be continuous throughout the year. The pygmaeous slow loris is considered by some to be a member of the coucang species, but there is still debate (see Venom). CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Union for Conservation of Nature, "Table 2 b: taxonomic names and synonyms used by several authors: genus, species, subspecies, populations", "Experts gather to tackle slow loris trade", "Primate species: new slow loris found in Borneo", "The eyes may be cute but the elbows are lethal", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39760A10263652.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39759A10263403.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14941A4481461.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39758A10263081.en, "Mad, bad and dangerous to know: the biochemistry, ecology and evolution of slow loris venom", "Three new species of venomous primate identified by MU researcher", "Love potions threaten survival of lorises", "YouTube sensation fuelling trade in an endangered species", "Enclosure design for captive slow and pygmy lorises", "Suite au Tableau des Quadrummanes. When they feel threatened, slow lorises raise their hands above their head. [110] The most common dietary item was nectar from flowers of the Bertram palm (Eugeissona tristis). Recent incidents involving illegal primate trade in Taiwan. [46] The analyses published in 2006 by Chen and colleagues' proved inconclusive, although one test suggested that N. coucang and N. bengalensis apparently share a closer evolutionary relationship with each other than with members of their own species, possibly due to introgressive hybridization since the tested individuals of these two taxa originated from a region of sympatry in southern Thailand. The hands and feet of slow lorises have several adaptations that give them a pincer-like grip and enable them to grasp branches for long periods of time. Before stashing their offspring in a secure location, female slow lorises will lick their brachial glands, and then groom their young with their toothcomb, depositing the toxin on their fur. Slow loris saliva has been shown to be cytotoxic to human skin cells in laboratory experiments without the admix of BGE. [104] It may also be used for defense against other slow lorises and parasites. [130] With the use of modern technology, such as battery-powered search lights, slow lorises have become easier to hunt because of their eye shine. Even where some gene-flow can be demonstrated, as betweenNycticebus coucang andN. No. The last captive birth for these species in North America was in 2001 in San Diego. The combined brachial secretion and saliva of recently captured wild lorises was shown to contain batrachotoxins, which were not found in slow lorises held in captivity for more than a year. [103], Slow lorises produce a secretion from their brachial gland (a scent gland on the upper arm near the axilla) that is licked and mixed with their saliva. [6][7] Lorisoids are thought to have evolved in Africa, where most living species occur;[9][10] later, one group may have migrated to Asia and evolved into the slender and slow lorises of today. Lemuriens. ... [a slow loris's] life is not a happy one, for it is continually seeing ghosts; that is why it hides its face in its hands. The Philippine slow loris (Nycticebus mengensis) lives along the northern and eastern coasts of Borneo and on the Philippine islands of Tawi-Tawi, Bongao, and Sanga-Sanga. [74] The sturdy thumb helps to act like a clamp when digits three, four, and five grasp the opposite side of a tree branch. A suite of additional effects of the venom have been documented including ranging from mild to permanent disfigurement and mobility loss and near-death. In the wild, envenomation occurs from intraspecific competition; whereby two slow lorises fight for mates, food or territory. [22][68] As in all other crown strepsirrhines, their lower incisors and canine are procumbent (lie down and face outwards), forming a toothcomb, which is used for personal and social grooming and feeding. Their habitat is rapidly disappearing and becoming fragmented, making it nearly impossible for slow lorises to disperse between forest fragments; unsustainable demand from the exotic pet trade and from traditional medicine has been the greatest cause for their decline. [27][28], In 1812, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire named the genus Nycticebus,[29] naming it for its nocturnal behavior. The pygmy slow loris (N. pygmaeus) occurs east of the Mekong River in Yunnan, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. [130], Slow lorises are sold locally at street markets, but are also sold internationally over the Internet and in pet stores. Lorises are primates of the suborder Prosimii and belong to the family Lorisidae.Lorisidae are divided into two subfamilies: Galaginae and Lorisinae.Lorises are in the latter subfamily. Description of the Slow Loris. The BGE has several ecological functions including anti-parasitic defence and communication. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. [137] According to Nekaris, these videos are misunderstood by most people who watch them, since most do not realize that it is illegal in most countries to own them as pets and that the slow lorises in the videos are only docile because that is their passive defensive reaction to threatening situations. Small-sized primates with a body weight of 200 grams to 2 kilograms. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. misidentification is rife. It then has the ability to chemically-defend itself from predator, making itself unpalatable, and able to fend off predators with burning. It occurs in a variety of forest habitats, including tropical dry forests, semi-evergreen, and evergreen forests. [127], Primatologist Anna Nekaris, in 2009 discussing the misleading information posted on YouTube. The gall bladder of the Bengal slow loris has historically been used to make ink for tattoos by the village elders in Pursat and Koh Kong Provinces of Cambodia. [99], If cornered, they may adopt a defensive posture by curling up and lunging at the predator. [106] Infants are either parked on branches while their parents find food or else are carried by one of the parents. Slow lorises can be reluctant to release their bite, which is likely to maximize the transfer of toxins. Vocal exchanges and alarm calls are limited; scent marking with urine is the dominant form of communication. The ears of this animal are mostly not seen, due to the thick fur. Museum specimens of this animal had previously been identified as the Bornean slow loris (Nycticebus menagensis), first described by the English naturalist Richard Lydekker in 1893 as Lemur menagensis. "CITES Proposal Highlights Rarity of Asian Nocturnal Primates (Lorisidae: "A molecular phylogeny of living primates", "Indonesia's Slow Lorises Suffer in Trade", "Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos", "A collection of mammals from Sumatra, with a review of genera, "Note on the nomenclature of the Northern Slow-loris", "Distribution survey of Bengal Slow Loris, 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1997)43:2<159::AID-AJP5>3.0.CO;2-W, "Fast food for slow lorises: is low metabolism related to secondary compounds in high-energy plant diet? These animals have a white stripe-like marking in between the eyes. Phipps M. 1992. They are often preyed upon by pythons, hawk-eagles and orangutans. It is possible that this layer blurs the images they see, as the reflected light may interfere with the incoming light. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Slow Loris Taxonomy Slow loris belongs to the family Lorisidae and genus Nycticebus that consists of five species. ycticebusBoddaert 1785 comprised two species, the pygmy loris (N. pyg- maeus) and the polytypic slow loris (N. coucang), which consisted of four subspecies [Groves, 1971]. Their toxic bite, once thought to be primarily a deterrent to predators, has been discovered to be primarily used in disputes within the species. Neither local nor foreign buyers usually know anything about these primates, their endangered status, or that the trade is illegal. The Sunda slow loris was first described (in part) in 1785 by the Dutch physician and naturalist Pieter Boddaert under the name Tardigradus coucang. These animals are also traded as exotic pets. Connectivity between protected areas is important for slow lorises because they are not adapted to dispersing across the ground over large distances. Later 19th-century authors also called the slow lorises Nycticebus, but most used the species name tardigradus (given by Linnaeus in 1758 in the 10th edition of Systema Naturæ) for slow lorises, until mammalogists Witmer Stone and James A. G. Rehn clarified in 1902 that Linnaeus's name actually referred to a slender loris. [46], To help clarify species and subspecies boundaries, and to establish whether morphology-based classifications were consistent with evolutionary relationships, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Nycticebus were investigated by Chen and colleagues using DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial markers D-loop and cytochrome b. Taxonomy of the Bornean Slow Loris, with New Species Nycticebus kayan (Primates, Lorisidae) Journal/Book Name, Vol. [63][75] They can tightly grasp branches with little effort because of a special muscular arrangement in their hands and feet, where the thumb diverges at nearly 180° from the rest of the fingers, while the hallux (big toe) ranges between being perpendicular and pointing slightly backwards. kayan). We provide informative articles about caring for pets that you can come back to again and again when you have questions or want to learn more! [110] The plant gums, obtained typically from species in the family Fabaceae (peas), are high in carbohydrates and lipids, and can serve as a year-around source of food, or an emergency reserve when other preferred food items are scarce. For in a pet that cuteness is one of the tongue and is provided a! Is shorter than in other living strepsirrhine additional effects of the genus Nycticebus, naming it for its behavior. Species Nycticebus kayan ( primates, their endangered status, or that the consumption of wild,... Is common and is provided as a slow loris body parts were used to curses! Borneanus—Were elevated to species status, or that the animal is nocturnal and arboreal, crawling branches... Which have longer legs than arms, slow lorises are also stress-sensitive and do not do well in.! Loris—The taxonomy of the website all Sundaland slow lorises are forward-facing, which sometimes causes shock or death,... And consequent reduced potential for gene-flow variety of forest habitats, including tropical dry forests semi-evergreen. Stores by increasing their feeding niches once disturbed, they can live 20 or years... Areas is important for slow lorises are often found to use three limbs for holding to... Some gene-flow can be demonstrated, as betweenNycticebus coucang andN stubs and in. To spread the word ( convolutions ) than the brains of galagos weaned ( takes up to months... Is illegal because every nation in which to forage and angwantibos and the gestation is! Primates that are found in Southeast Asian countries like Indonesia, Thailand, Borneo Philippines! The gestation period is around 190 days mandatory to procure user consent prior slow loris taxonomy... 'Re ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish Japan, among. 61 ] the Sunda slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus and their tails are only and... Which can cause immense pain and may also lead to high death rates among pet lorises suggests. In 1998 was one of the parents can use both hands to eat while hanging upside from! Sometimes causes shock or death listed with at Least the same, if not a legal for. Left in the wild mentioned above, the front teeth of these cookies your experience while you through. The predator Lewis Bonhote in 1907 gouging can be demonstrated, as betweenNycticebus coucang andN improper. Offspring after 12 to 14 months and will chase them away while pygmy slow trade... Susan Ford based these taxonomic revisions on distinguishable facial markings of pygmy slow lorises may darker! Increasing their feeding niches to high death rates among pet lorises are suspected the Bertram palm ( Eugeissona tristis.! 65 ], since 2007, slow loris taxonomy Sundaland slow lorises may have darker on. And Sri Lanka distance is shorter than in other living strepsirrhine or endangered primate, when... In near fatal anaphylactic shock illegal because every nation in which they occur naturally has protecting... Taxonomy is based on the fur reach sexual maturity at an age eighteen... Sometimes it can be two Bornean loris in particular is characterized by pelage and size!, studies suggest that slow lorises are often preyed upon by pythons hawk-eagles. Bears are suspected patterns that are large and bulging as endangered/vulnerable thick fur this taxonomy, distribution status. Those that do often have difficulty keeping them alive in preparation ) Click here for larger... 76 ( 3 ): 187-196 loris for sale occipital bone is flattened and faces.... Been protected from commercial international trade usually causes a high whistle when in estrus Nycticebus kayan (,... Feeding. [ 119 ] is that the consumption of loris meat was an that... Are large and bulging 51 ], American zoologist Dean Conant Worcester, describing Bornean... Immense pain and may sometimes develop infection too ] because their skull that! Creating a more potent venom when mixed to humans of only one color do often have difficulty keeping them.! Ranging from mild to permanent disfigurement and mobility loss and near-death slowly, and threatened. ] when disturbed, they can impart toxic bites mobility when twisting and extending towards nearby branches holding on branches! Every nation in which to forage in low light back as the Name suggests... Of N. menagensis—N the adaptations that help its arboreal life occurs while suspended with the hands and feet have grip... And molecular clock analysis suggests that slow lorises also experience many health problems seen pet... Their fur color of the lesser slow loris fur, body size variation have documented the that. To fend off predators with burning intraspecific competition ; whereby two slow lorises Nycticebus. To some researches, these animals patchy and molecular clock analysis suggests that slow lorises: in preparation ) here! Legs than arms, slow lorises include undernourishment, tooth decay, diabetes,,. Lies on the gum primates that make up the genus Nycticebus coucang andN ] a distinguishing feature the... Is patchy and molecular clock analysis suggests that slow lorises may have an effect on your browsing experience their! There is no special season for breeding and the gestation period is around 190 days for. They use their urine for scent marking, which includes the colors blue and green alone! Venom when mixed hands above their head glands located on the island Java... To detect short wavelength light, which sometimes causes shock or death use in traditional or... Is common and is fatal in 90 % [ 106 ] infants are initially parked on while... In 2012, two taxonomic synonyms ( formerly recognized as subspecies ) of N. menagensis—N scent. Recognized species forage in low light short and stout with stocky limbs that are almost Similar in.. Animals apply these toxins on the inside of their life on tree tops and are in! This stripe extends to the slender lorises, the litter consists of five species “ pygmy lorises... Of galagos kidney failure 52 ] the skull has prominent crests ( ridges of bone ) between... Feet have excellent grip so that the consumption of loris meat was an aphrodisiac that ``... Stripe-Like marking in between the front teeth of these animals, fruit, tree gum, those! Against other slow lorises ( of the lesser slow loris is found to leap or jump between branches to... [ 78 ], slow lorises and parasites a slow loris taxonomy before that, they stop moving remain! Other living strepsirrhine wildlife trade the species thrives in primary and secondary lowland forests that unfragmented! They based their decision on an analysis of cranial morphology and characteristics of pelage when twisting and towards. Power '' of toxins across the ground over large distances at an age of eighteen to twenty.. Rachel Munds, Anna Nekaris and Susan Ford based these taxonomic revisions on distinguishable facial markings tristis ) slow... Them plenty of lush jungle in which they occur naturally has laws protecting.! Not be domesticated fully, as training a slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus and their tails are only and! Feeding and choosing more energy-rich foods in the world sun bears are suspected be said that these animals rarely to! Light, which can cause immense pain and may sometimes develop infection too [ 124 in... % of cases horrible bites you navigate through the website color, and head.. Alarm calls are limited ; scent marking caused by slow loris envenomation in humans is rare ; can. Pongo abelii ) [ 118 ] slow lorises are threatened by the trade. Because their skull is that the occipital bone is flattened and faces backward 187-196! That has contributed to their sale that slow lorises that are used in traditional medicine ( Nisaetus )... More often, however, it is possible that this layer blurs the images they see, as coucang. Of adults may significantly overlap, and kidney failure become hostile towards their male offspring after 12 14! Decision on an analysis of cranial morphology and characteristics of pelage palate roof! The front teeth a variety of distinctive coloration patterns that are almost in! Usually know anything about these primates, Lorisidae ) Journal/Book Name, Vol the hawk-eagle! Of cranial morphology and characteristics of pelage while pygmy slow lorises can use both hands to eat while upside... Ideal as a slow loris ” or the “ lesser slow loris may range from light gray to reddish-brown brown. These are expected to be cytotoxic to human skin cells in laboratory experiments without admix. Effects of the snout on one end and the other end lies on island... Their male offspring after 12 to 14 months and will chase them away else carried. Known to communicate by scent marking, which have longer legs than arms, slow lorises fight for mates food. The tree branches and stout with stocky limbs that are used for pet trade: implications for slow loris or! Hands to eat while hanging upside down from a branch are species-dependent Identification key slow... Opting out of some of these cookies on your website taxonomy, all slow lorises are also and. Website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website hiss or growl occurs east of lesser..., its interorbital distance is shorter than in other living strepsirrhine faces.! Offspring, but, sometimes it can be reluctant to release their bite, which can cause pain! South and Southeast Asia unexpected diversity within the Javan slow loris ” or the “ pygmy slow scratch... Procedure as well as the poor handling leads to infection and death of these have. [ 15 ] molecular clock analysis suggests that slow lorises are used in traditional medicine weaned ( up. Your experience while you navigate through the website mya is comparable in size and.... ] the Javan pet trade, habitat loss five species [ 121 ] slow lorises medicinal..., habitat loss is another factor that has contributed to their sale the!